Generic term for various peoples from the steppe (q.v.), including the Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, Seljuks, and Ottomans (qq.v.). The battle of Mantzikert (q.v.) in 1071 opened up Asia Minor to the Seljuks (qq.v.) and to disparate Turkoman nomads searching for plunder and pasturage for their flocks. Besides the Seljuks, who established the sultanate of Rum (q.v.), other competing Turkish emirates appeared, including the emirates of Aydin, Germiyan, Karaman, Karasi, Saruhan, and Osman (qq.v.). The followers of Osman were the famed Osmanli, or Ottomans (q.v.), as Europeans called them.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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